Perfectly Peeled Hard-boiled Eggs

There are a million and one tips out there for how to make a hard-boiled egg easier to peel. AND even more questions without answers that actually solve the problem/s. 

For example: How long does it take to hard boil an egg? How do you boil eggs so they peel easily? How do you know when a hard-boiled egg is done? Can you boil eggs in already boiling water? What do you put in water to make eggs peel easier?

Finally,  an answer to this age-old challenge. An idea that actually works!